A Comprehensive Guide to Conjugating the Italian Verb "Essere" with Example Sentences

May 22nd, 2023 - Vera

The Italian verb “essere,” meaning “to be,” is one of the most fundamental and frequently used verbs in the Italian language. Mastering the conjugation of “essere” is essential for expressing existence, identity, characteristics, and more. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the conjugation of “essere” in detail, accompanied by example sentences to illustrate its usage in context.

Present Tense Conjugation

In the present tense, “essere” follows an irregular conjugation pattern. Let’s take a look at the conjugation for each person:

Person Conjugation
Io (I) sono
Tu (you) sei
Egli/Ella (he/she) è
Noi (we) siamo
Voi (you all) siete
Essi/Esse (they) sono

Example sentences:

  1. Io sono un insegnante. (I am a teacher.)
  2. Tu sei molto intelligente. (You are very intelligent.)
  3. Lui è italiano. (He is Italian.)
  4. Noi siamo felici di vederti. (We are happy to see you.)
  5. Voi siete bravi ballerini. (You all are good dancers.)
  6. Loro sono studenti universitari. (They are university students.)

Imperfect Tense Conjugation

In the imperfect tense, used to describe ongoing or habitual actions in the past, “essere” follows the same irregular conjugation pattern:

Person Conjugation
Io (I) ero
Tu (you) eri
Egli/Ella (he/she) era
Noi (we) eravamo
Voi (you all) eravate
Essi/Esse (they) erano

Example sentences:

  1. Quando ero giovane, vivevo in città. (When I was young, I lived in the city.)
  2. Tu eri sempre gentile con tutti. (You were always kind to everyone.)
  3. Lei era una ballerina professionista. (She was a professional dancer.)
  4. Noi eravamo inseparabili da bambini. (We were inseparable as children.)
  5. Voi eravate molto bravi negli sport. (You all were very good at sports.)
  6. Loro erano i migliori amici di mio fratello. (They were my brother’s best friends.)

Future Tense Conjugation

In the future tense, used to express actions that will happen in the future, “essere” follows the same irregular conjugation pattern:

Person Conjugation
Io (I) sarò
Tu (you) sarai
Egli/Ella (he/she) sarà
Noi (we) saremo
Voi (you all) sarete
Essi/Esse (they) saranno

Example sentences:

  1. Domani sarò a casa tutto il giorno. (Tomorrow I will be at home all day.)
  2. Tu sarai molto occupato domani. (You will be very busy tomorrow.)
  3. Lei sarà felice di vederti. (She will be happy to see you.)
  4. Noi saremo pronti per la partenza. (We will be ready for departure.)
  5. Voi sarete invitati alla festa. (You all will be invited to the party.)
  6. Loro saranno qui tra un’ora. (They will be here in an hour.)

Conditional Tense Conjugation

In the conditional tense, used to express actions that would occur under certain conditions, “essere” follows the same irregular conjugation pattern:

Person Conjugation
Io (I) sarei
Tu (you) saresti
Egli/Ella (he/she) sarebbe
Noi (we) saremmo
Voi (you all) sareste
Essi/Esse (they) sarebbero

Example sentences:

  1. Se avessi più tempo, sarei più felice. (If I had more time, I would be happier.)
  2. Tu saresti un bravo insegnante. (You would be a good teacher.)
  3. Se fosse qui, sarebbe orgoglioso di te. (If he were here, he would be proud of you.)
  4. Noi saremmo più tranquilli se sapessimo che sei al sicuro. (We would be calmer if we knew you were safe.)
  5. Voi sareste invitati alla cerimonia. (You all would be invited to the ceremony.)
  6. Loro sarebbero felici di partecipare all’evento. (They would be happy to participate in the event.)

Subjunctive Mood Conjugation

In the subjunctive mood, used to express doubts, wishes, or hypothetical situations, “essere” follows the same irregular conjugation pattern:

Person Conjugation
Io (I) sia
Tu (you) sia
Egli/Ella (he/she) sia
Noi (we) siamo
Voi (you all) siate
Essi/Esse (they) siano

Example sentences:

  1. È importante che io sia presente alla riunione. (It is important that I be present at the meeting.)
  2. Voglio che tu sia felice. (I want you to be happy.)
  3. Se fosse vero, sarebbe fantastico. (If it were true, it would be fantastic.)
  4. È necessario che noi siamo puntuali. (It is necessary that we be on time.)
  5. È meglio che voi siate preparati per l’esame. (It is better that you all be prepared for the exam.)
  6. Non credo che loro siano pronti per questa sfida. (I don’t think they are ready for this challenge.)


Mastering the conjugation of the verb “essere” is fundamental for expressing existence, identity, characteristics, and more in Italian. By familiarizing yourself with the conjugation forms and studying example sentences, you will develop a strong foundation for effective communication. Remember to practice regularly to internalize these conjugations and enhance your fluency in Italian. Buona fortuna! (Good luck!)

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